Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in Western countries, representing almost 30% of all deaths worldwide. Evidence shows the effectiveness of healthy dietary patterns and lifestyles for the prevention of CVD. Furthermore, the rising incidence of CVD over the last 25 years has become a public health priority, especially the prevention of CVD (or cardiovascular events) through lifestyle interventions. Current scientific evidence shows that Western dietary patterns compared to healthier dietary patterns, such as the ‘Mediterranean diet’ (MeDiet), leads to an excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines associated with a reduced synthesis of anti-inflammatory cytokines. In fact, dietary intervention allows better combination of multiple foods and nutrients. Therefore, a healthy dietary pattern shows a greater magnitude of beneficial effects than the potential effects of a single nutrient supplementation. This review aims to identify potential targets (food patterns, single foods, or individual nutrients) for preventing CVD and quantifies the magnitude of the beneficial effects observed. On the other hand, we analyze the possible mechanisms implicated in this cardio protective effect.
1. Serve more vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and legumes. Just about everyone could stand to eat more plant-based foods. They're rich in fiber and other nutrients, and they can taste great in a salad, as a side dish, or as an entree. Watch that you don't use too much fat or cheese when you prepare them.
2. Choose fat calories wisely by:
3. Serve a variety of protein-rich foods. Balance meals with lean meat, fish, and vegetable sources of protein.
4. Limit cholesterol. Cholesterol in foods, found in red meat and high-fat dairy products, can raise blood cholesterol levels, especially in high-risk people.
5. Serve the right kind of carbs. Include foods like brown rice, oatmeal, quinoa, and sweet potatoes to add fiber and help control blood sugar levels. Avoid sugary foods.
6. Eat regularly. This helps someone with heart disease control blood sugar, burn fat more efficiently, and regulate cholesterol levels.
7. Cut back on salt. Too much salt is bad for blood pressure. Instead, use herbs, spices, or condiments to flavor foods.
8. Encourage hydration. Staying hydrated makes you feel energetic and eat less. Encourage your loved one to drink 32 to 64 ounces (about 1 to 2 liters) of water daily, unless their doctor has told them to limit fluids.
9. Keep serving sizes in check. It can help to use smaller plates and glasses, and to check food labels to see how much is in a serving, since it's easy to eat more than you think. Some guidelines: